Samrerng Ratanarapee, MD.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok
Correspondence: Samrerng Ratanarapee, M.D.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Sirriaj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.
Tel. +66-02-411-2005, Fax. +66-02-411-4260


Prostatic adenocarcioma is a very common male cancer worldwide. Biopsy remains the most reliable means in making definite diagnosis. In the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening era, the rate of prostate biopsies rapidly increases, resulting in early detection of very small tumors. In the same time, general pathologists are forced to face more and more biopsy specimens. Many benign mimickers of prostatic carcinoma exist and cause false-positive diagnosis which, subsequently, may lead to serious clinical, psychological, and medicolegal outcomes. These mimickers might be just benign structures, i.e. rectal tissue, Cowper’s gland, paraganglion, seminal vesicle, and ejaculatory duct; benign pathologic or physiologic changes, i.e. atrophy, hyperplasia, adenosis, and even crowded acini; inflammatory processes; i.e. non-specific prostatitis, granulomatous prostatitis, xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, and malakoplakia; or metaplasia, i.e. mucnous metaplasia. All mentioned mimickers are summarized in this communication to support general pathologists when dealing with prostate