The essentials of vascular pathology

Vascular pathology is defined as the abnormalities of the arterial and venous blood vessels and the lymphatic vessels. Endothelial cell injury usually leads to the development of either arterial or venous change.The lymphatic diseases mostly result from inflammation, infection, and neoplasm....

The basic concepts of carcinogenesis

The aetiology of developing cancer consists of genetic and epigenetic mutations, DNA damage, genome instability, cancer stem cells, infectious agents, and carcinogens. However, carcinogenesis is a complex multistep process associated with various hereditary and environmental factors. ...

Cellular and somatic deaths

Cellular death generally results from irreversible (lethal) injury. In addition, a normal physiological cell death process or apoptosis presents during embryogenesis and adult life. The role of apoptosis is also involved in pathological condition. ...

Cellular injury

Cellular injury is the process through which the cell is unable to maintain its homeostasis in the encounter with injurious stimuli. Generally, the cells with mild injury result in reversible cell damage and there is no cellular death. However, severe cellular injury leads to irreversible change and death of the affected cells....

Update in Thymoma for Surgical Pathologists

Thymoma is the most common mediastinal tumor in adulthood. By definition, it is a thymic epithelial neoplasm that displays at least some characteristics of normal thymus. Microscopically it comprises an admixture of thymic epithelial cells and immature T lymphocytes in various proportions and demonstrates marked intratumoral heterogeneity...